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Course Highlights


225 hours

Course Fee: Rs. 50,000
Course Features:
  • Online classroom sessions (225 hours)
  • Join:
    Contact For any further queries regarding the course, contact
    Phone: +91 9000018827

    Course Details

    Sample Videos of Live Class


    The Geography course is handled by

  • Priyesh Singh Sengar
  • Geography Optional Syllabus

    The following is the syllabus for Geography - Main Examination - Paper I and Paper II.



    Physical Geography:

    1. Geomorphology:
      • Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth's crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth's interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
      • Applied Geomorphology: Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
    2. Climatology:
      • Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen's, Thornthwaite's and Trewartha's classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
    3. Oceanography:
      • Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides;
      • Marine Resources: Biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
    4. Biogeography:
      • Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
    5. Environmental Geography:
      • Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

    Human Geography:

    1. Perspectives in Human Geography:
      • Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
    2. Economic Geography:
      • World Economic Development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth;
      • World Agriculture: Typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security;
      • Famine: Causes, effects and remedies;
      • World Industries: Locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
    3. Population and Settlement Geography:
      • Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements;
      • Urban Morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
    4. Regional Planning:
      • Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
    5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography:
      • Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen's model of agricultural location; Weber's model of industrial location; Ostov's model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.



    1. Physical Setting:
      • Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
    2. Resources:
      • Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
    3. Agriculture:
      • Infrastructure: Irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power;
      • Institutional Factors: Land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
    4. Industry:
      • Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
    5. Transport, Communication and Trade:
      • Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
    6. Cultural Setting:
      • Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population;
      • Demographic Attributes: Sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
    7. Settlements:
      • Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
    8. Regional Development and Planning:
      • Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
    9. Political Aspects:
      • Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India's role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
    10. Contemporary Issues:
      • Ecological issues
      • Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

    NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

    Online Classroom Sessions

    • The course comprises of online classroom sessions for a duration of 225 hours.
    • Click here to check the weekly timetable schedule for the course.
    • Click here for Sample Videos.

    Geography Optional Suggested Books for Reference

    The following are the suggested books / references that the students can consult while preparing for Geography - Main Examination - Paper I and Paper II.

    • Physical Geography - Savinder Singh (Geomorphology, Physical geography, Environmental Geography)
    • Human geography - Majid Hussain (Physical geography, Human Geography, General Geography and Geography of India)
    • NCERT Class VI to XII
    • Spectrum Geography Guide

    Popularity of Geography as an optional subject

    The following are the reasons why this subject is popular among students.

    • The study of geography involves both understanding and memorising skills.
    • With well-planned strategies, you can easily score well in the subject.
    • Since all the physical aspects of geography follow a logical sequence it is easy to remember and comprehend.
    • It is a scoring subject, very much along the lines of mathematics or any science subject.
    • Questions from map are straightforward and hence, it is easy to score.
    • With the help of the internet, one can get many visuals - animated and real pictures - that make the subject not only easier to understand but also very interesting. Thus, enough reference material is available.
    • Finally the subject deals with our own environment which we can relate to and that is learning for life not only for the IAS exam!
    • As future IAS officers, this subject will also help you make the right decisions because it makes you to look at the whole picture.

    Suggestions for Preparation of Geography Optional Subject

    The following are simple preparation tips to score well in the Geography - Main Examination - Paper I and Paper II.

    • Study with comprehension and understanding; avoid rote learning
    • Since the syllabus is vast, do not just memorize facts. Make easy reference notes to brush through the points just before the examination.
    • When there is a diagram, learn to draw or sketch it with all the information and then learn to describe the diagram. This will help you write an essay for 30/60 marks.
    • Highlight and memorise key words ad make simple sentences.
    • Regional and economic geography must be studied along with the respective maps.
    • Use tabular columns especially for prelim geography.
    • Information, facts and figures may be printed out in large fonts and stuck on a soft board or anywhere suitable which is in constant view. 
    • Be well-versed with India Map and World Map. Questions on these subjects repeat every year.
    • Buy political and physical wall maps of the World and India or sit with the atlas as often as possible.

    Joining the course

    Regular Student

    • Students can register as a regular user for any of the courses offered by Indiancivils by making the full payment for the course online.
    • As a regular user, students can
      • Participate in virtual classroom sessions and directly interact with the faculty and students during the online coaching classes.
      • Gain access to the question bank of ALL SUBJECTS of CSAT (Prelims) .
      • Gain access to the pre-recorded videos of the registered courses for 18 Months from the date of Registration.
    • Registered students would receive intimation about the scheduled virtual classroom sessions on their registered mobile and email ids. Further, an automated reminder would be sent to the registered mobile number 10 minutes before the online session.




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